托福阅读真题练习:海洋文化

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Zong zi

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The Native American peoples of the north PacificCoast created a highly
complex maritime culture as they invented modes ofproduction unique to
their special environment. In addition to theirsophisticated technical
culture, they also attained one of the most complexsocial organizations
of any nonagricultural people in the world.

“Duan Wu Festival” (or the Dragon Boat Festival), the fifth day of the
May in the Lunar calendar, is a important Chinese holiday. It is for
remembering a politician and great poet Qu Yuan, who lived in Chu Guo
Country, more than 2000 years ago. A tip on Chinese history: before the
ancient China was united, it was broken into many smaller countries. Chu
Guo Country was one of them.

Sharing the latest articles of the UNESCO Courier with you.

In a division of labor similar to that of thehunting peoples in the
interior and among foraging peoples throughout theworld, the men did
most of the fishing, and the women processed the catch.

At that time, Qu Yuan thought that his country was dying and nothing
can’t be done to save it. He was desperate and committed suicide by
jumping into the Miluo River. It is said lots of people were looking for
his body with boats, fearing that his body would be eaten by fish. Over
time, this becomes the yearly Dragon Boat Contest. Also, it is said that
people threw rice dumplings (“Zong Zi”) into the river, so that fish
would rather eat the dumplings than his body.

与您第一时间分享联合国教科文《信使》杂志的最新文章。

Women also specialized in the gathering of theabundant shellfish that
lived closer to shore. They collected oysters, crabs,sea urchins,
mussels, abalone, and clams, which they could gather whileremaining
close to their children. The maritime life harvested by the women
notonly provided food, but also supplied more of the raw materials for
makingtools than did fish gathered by the men. Of particular importance
for thenative tool kit before the introduction of metal was the wide
knife made fromthe larger mussel shells, and a variety of cutting edges
that could be madefrom other marine shells.

A rice dumpling is very different from a regular dumpling. A regular
dumpling usually has veggie or meat stuffing, wrapped with flour-based
wraps. The rice dumplings are usually stuffed with a variety of things,
such as red bean paste, dates and meat, wrapped with glutinous rice
first, then lotus leaves. In the north side of China, people love to eat
sweet rice dumplings (stuffed with bean paste etc), while people from
the southern part of Chins love meat based rice dumplings better.

On the occasion of the Chinese New Year, “UNESCOcourier” – a bilingual
WeChat subscription account of the UNESCO’s flagship magazine The
Courier – was officially launched on 31 January 2019.

The women used their tools to process all of thefish and marine mammals
brought in by the men. They cleaned the fish, and driedvast quantities
of them for the winter. They sun-dried fish when practical, butin the
rainy climate of the coastal area they also used smokehouses to
preservetons of fish and other seafood annually. Each product had its
own peculiarcharacteristics that demanded a particular way of cutting or
drying the meat,and each task required its own cutting blades and other
utensils.

Since the festival is to remember the dead people, on this day, we send
good wishes to each other, wishing everyone healthy.

新春佳节,我们联合国教科文《信使》杂志双语官方微信公众账号于2019年1月31日正式开通。

After drying the fish, the women pounded some ofthem into fish meal,
which was an easily transported food used in soups, stews,or other
dishes to provide protein and thickening in the absence of fresh fishor
while on long trips. The woman also made a cheese-like substance from
amixture of fish and roe by aging it in storehouses or by burying it in
woodenboxes or pits lined with rocks and tree leaves.

In the latest edition of the Courier, an article from Chinese experts
titled Discussing “Rice-Fish-Duck Agriculture” and People, brought us
atmosphere of the festival, and gained the attention of readers
worldwide. This article, which introduces the “Rice-Fish-Duck”
ecosystems in Guizhou, China, has allowed the culture and traditional
wisdom of Chinese agriculture and farming to reappear in the context of
global agriculture production and advancement.

题目:

在最新一期的杂志中,一篇来自中国专家的文章《论稻鱼鸭和人》,给大家带来了十足的
“年味”,也引起了全球读者的关注。这篇关于中国贵州 “稻鱼鸭”
生态系统科学价值的介绍,让中国农耕文明的传统智慧在全球化农业生产背景中重放异彩。

  1. Which aspect of the lives of the NativeAmericans of the north Pacific
    Coast does the passage mainly discuss?

The Dong people, living in Congjiang county, in the heart of Guizhou
province, invented centuries ago a “green” agricultural system to
produce organic food. They catered to the biological and ecological
characteristics of the various organisms, and made the rice, fish and
ducks live harmoniously without any pesticides. The system preserves the
diversity of local agricultural species, reduces the production costs,
and increases the market value of the rice, fish and ducks. The
“Rice-Fish-Duck” system, dating back to the Eastern Han dynasty, is
recognized by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and
was designated a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems site
in 2001. It was cited as “an extraordinary living model of water and
soil resources”.

(A) Methods of food preservation

位于中国贵州省中部从江县的侗族,于几个世纪前发明了一种生产有机食品的
“绿色”
生态系统,它巧妙地运用了各种生物的生态特征和特殊需求,在不使用杀虫剂的情况下,使稻、鱼、鸭这三个土生土长的品种在耕地匮乏的土地上和谐共存。它既保护了当地农作物品种的多样性,降低了生产成本,又提升了稻、鱼、鸭的的市场价值。这种可追溯到东汉时期的智慧农业生态模式,也得到了联合国粮食及农业组织
的认可,于2001 年被指定为全球重要农业遗产系统遗址,并被称为是
“一种超乎寻常的充分利用水土资源的生活模式” 。

(B) How diet was restricted by the environment

A series of photos taken by Chinese photographer Kuang Huimin gives us a
clear picture of the people’s life and wisdom from the land of “rice,
fish and duck”.

(C) The contributions of women to the food supply

让我们通过一组来自中国摄影家旷惠民的摄影作品,近距离感受来自这片
“稻鱼鸭” 土地上人的智慧。

(D) Difficulties in establishing successful farms

  1. The word “unique” in line 2 is closestin meaning to

(A) comprehensible

(B) productive

(C) intentional

(D) particular

  1. The word “attained” in line 3 isclosest in meaning to

(A) achieved

(B) modified

(C) demanded

(D) spread

  1. It can be inferred from paragraph 1 that thesocial organization of
    many agricultural peoples is

(A) more complex than that of hunters and foragers

(B) less efficient than that of hunters andforagers

(C) more widespread than that of hunters andforagers

(D) better documented than that of hunters andforagers

5.According to the passage , what is true of the”division of labor”
mentioned in line 5?

(A) It was first developed by NativeAmericans ofthe north Pacific Coast.

(B) It rarely existed among hunting

(C) It was a structure that the Native Americans ofthe north Pacific
Coast shared with many other peoples.

(D) It provided a form of social organization thatwas found mainly among
coastal peoples.

  1. The word “abundant” in line 7 isclosest in meaning to

(A) prosperous

(B) plentiful

(C) acceptable

(D) fundamental

7.All of the following are true of the northPacific coast women EXCEPT
that they

(A) were more likely to catch shellfish than otherkinds of fish

(B) contributed more materials for tool making thanthe men did

(C) sometimes searched for food far inland from thecoast

(D) prepared and preserved the fish

  1. The word “They” in line 16 refers to

(A) women

(B) tools

(C) mammals

(D) men

  1. The NativeAmericans of the north Pacific Coastused smokehouses in
    order to

(A) store utensils used in food preparation

(B) prevent fish and shellfish from spoiling

(C) have a place to store fish and shellfish

(D) prepare elaborate meals

  1. The wore “peculiar” in line 19 isclosest in meaning to

(A) strange

(B) distinctive

(C) appealing

(D) biological

  1. All of following are true of the cheese-likesubstance mentioned in
    paragraph 4 EXCEPT that it was

(A) made from fish

(B) not actually cheese

(C) useful on long journeys

(D) made in a short period of time

答案:CDAAC BCABB D

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